Debian is a computer operating system composed of software packages released as free and open source software primarily under the GNU General Public License along with other free software licenses. Debian GNU/Linux, which includes the GNU OS tools and Linux kernel, is a popular and influential Linux distribution. It is distributed with access to repositories containing thousands of software packages ready for installation and use. Debian is known for relatively strict adherence to the Unix and free software philosophies as well as using collaborative software development and testing processes. Debian can be used on a variety of hardware, from NAS devices to phones, laptops, desktops and servers. It focuses on stability and security and is used as a base for many other distributions. This guide was created primarily to help new Debian users transition quickly over from other operating systems, but is just as useful to even very experienced Linux users. When you are done installing everything on this list hopefully you will have everything you would probably find on other comparable commercially available operating systems. There was a step-by-step list written for Fedora many many years ago when I was first starting out learning about Linux OS and was the concept for this guide, and I always found this to be best way to do fresh installations of Linux on my own computers.
Debian is under continual development. The latest release is Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.3. It is also (currently) known as stable or by its codename “Squeeze”.
Dubbed Squeeze, Debian 6.0 includes lots of updated applications, new features and improvements. Among these, we can mention the inclusion of four important desktop environments, KDE, GNOME, Xfce and LXDE), compatibility with FHS 2.3, support for nine architectures (32-bit PC / Intel IA-32 (i386), Intel Itanium (ia64), 64-bit PC / Intel EM64T / x86-64 (amd64), Sun/Oracle SPARC (sparc), Motorola/IBM PowerPC (powerpc), MIPS mipsel (little-endian) and (mips (big-endian)), IBM S/390 (s390) and ARM EABI (armel).
Existing Linux OS users can install Unetbootin from the repositories, and use that application to migrate your downloaded image to a USB Flash Drive or USB Thumb Drive and afterwards you can boot from your USB drive, or you can burn it to a disc with Brasero, or K3b, and boot from your CD/DVD drive instead. USB is much faster than CDs or DVDs when it comes to installation time, and less chance of data corruption.
Existing Windows OS users I recommend using a USB Flash Thumb Drive to install Debian *.ISO live hybrid (Recommended):
First thing you want to do after installing Debian is update your system:
Debian 6.0 also includes over 10,000 new packages such as the Chromium web browser, the Icinga open source monitoring solution, the Software Center package management front-end, the wicd network manager, the Corosync cluster framework and the lxc Linux container utilities.
Special Note: If you need instructions on how to build your own server you may want to review:
With this broad selection of packages, Debian once again stays true to its goal of being the universal operating system. It is suitable for many different use cases: from desktop systems to netbooks; from development servers to cluster systems; and for database, web or storage servers.
At the same time, additional quality assurance efforts like automatic installation and upgrade tests for all packages in Debian’s archive ensure that Debian 6.0 fulfils the high expectations that users have of a stable Debian release. It is rock solid and rigorously tested.
Last but not least, the installation process of Debian 6.0 (Squeeze) has been greatly improved in various ways. For example, it now includes easier selection of keyboard settings and language, partitioning of logical volumes, support for encrypted systems and RAID.
Debian 6.0 also brings support for the popular and modern EXT4 and Btrfs filesystems, and support for the ZFS (Zettabyte) filesystem on the kFreeBSD architecture. The installation system for Debian 6.0 has been translated in 70 languages.
This walk-through is aimed at being simple to the point of super-easy, but don’t go too fast. Make sure you read everything you are doing first before entering in commands please.
Special Note: Ice Weasel Web Browser (Identical to Firefox) will run VERY slow until you upgrade to the latest version of Ice Weasel Browser. After adding the repositories and upgrading the entire system, the first thing you should do is upgrade Ice Weasel Web Browser from 3* to 17* (Recommended)
Edit the repositories:.
Open a terminal and drop to root login (that is what the su command is for):
Enter your password and then:
Delete everything listed in your sources.list file and copy the following:
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze main deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze main deb http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main deb-src http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main # squeeze-updates, previously known as 'volatile' deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze-updates main deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze-updates main ## Debian – Stable deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stable main contrib non-free deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ stable main contrib non-free ## Security Updates deb http://security.debian.org/ stable/updates main contrib non-free deb-src http://security.debian.org/ stable/updates main contrib non-free ## Multimedia deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org stable main non-free deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org squeeze main non-free deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports main deb http://mozilla.debian.net/ squeeze-backports iceweasel-release
Special Note: If you are outside the USA you can build your local list of repositories here:
Adding your repositories keys for the above source.list:
gpg --keyserver pgpkeys.mit.edu --recv-key 07DC563D1F41B907 gpg -a --export 07DC563D1F41B907 | apt-key add - gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-key 06C4AE2A gpg -a --export 06C4AE2A | apt-key add -
Time to update the entire system and upgrade everything and reboot until no more updates are available after rebooting.
su apt-get update apt-get upgrade apt-get dist-upgrade apt-get autoremove
You can set up automatic unattended-upgrades pretty easily by typing this in a terminal:
su apt-get install unattended-upgrades dpkg-reconfigure unattended-upgrades
What is smxi?
smxi is an interactive script designed to help people maintain their systems. It supports Debian (Stable, Testing, and Sid) and true Debian based distros (such as, but not limited to, AntiX, Aptosid, Epidemic, Linux Mint Debian [LMDE], Mepis). It does not support Ubuntu based distros because there are too many differences between Debian and Ubuntu.
Smxi is a feature rich, powerful script, and has the following primary features and options:
- System Upgrades (dist-upgrade / upgrade)
- Kernel upgrades / kernel module upgrades
- Automatated video card driver installation (plus any needed patches), especially non-free drivers like nVidia and AMD/ATI fglrx
- Installing extra software (including building a desktop/server from scratch, starting with just the base Debian system)
- Removing certain software
- Cleaning up your system (cleaning up apt archives, removing kernels/ kernel modules, cleaning system cruft, etc)
- Tweaking your system, mozilla configurations, installing some small graphics tweaks, etc.
Run smxi below in terminal. When you arrive at the command line login with your user name and password and after you have changed to smxi script directory by using the cd /usr/local/bin command – run sudo smxi and then follow the prompts. sudo reboot will restart your system and take you (hopefully?) back into your Crunchbang desktop when you are done using smxi. You can use smxi as often as you want, but remember you will not have X Windows running or your desktop available while running smxi from the command line. For more info about smxi: http://smxi.org/site/about.htm
Special notes: Here are the settings that worked best for my Crunchbang Waldorf system: Set distro to Testing, and no distro updates should be needed for Crunchbang. Go ahead and install any of the software available that you want within smxi, and make sure to read every prompt, and check for the proprietary video graphics driver for your kernel you want to install on your system. I added the Liquorix kernel, and it works great too. No issues so far.
Here is how to install SMXI in Terminal:
cd /usr/local/bin && sudo wget -Nc smxi.org/smxi.zip && sudo unzip smxi.zip && sudo smxi
How to manually install Video drivers (without use of smxi script up above)
su aptitude -r install linux-headers-2.6-$(uname -r|sed 's,[^-]*-[^-]*-,,') fglrx-control fglrx-driver aticonfig --initial
"I don't use Nvidia video drivers so you will have to figure this out yourself"
If you are having video issues in general, make sure your video card is supported:
Essential tools for compiling from sources.
There are times when you need to compile software from sources, maybe because you need to compile the package with some specific option that is not enabled in the default package, or maybe the software application you wish to install isn’t available in any of your repositories. When you begin the installation process you will come to a window that will require you to accept the EULA to install, and you will need to click on your <Tab> key to select <OK> and press enter. (Here is a guide on how to compile software from source) and here are the required packages you need in order to compile sources in Debian:
su apt-get install build-essential apt-get install autotools-dev cdbs check checkinstall dctrl-tools debian-keyring devscripts dh-make diffstat dput equivs libapt-pkg-perl libauthen-sasl-perl libclass-accessor-perl libclass-inspector-perl libcommon-sense-perl libconvert-binhex-perl libcrypt-ssleay-perl libdevel-symdump-perl libfcgi-perl libhtml-template-perl libio-pty-perl libio-socket-ssl-perl libio-string-perl libio-stringy-perl libipc-run-perl libjson-perl libjson-xs-perl libmime-tools-perl libnet-libidn-perl libnet-ssleay-perl libossp-uuid-perl libossp-uuid16 libparse-debcontrol-perl libparse-debianchangelog-perl libpod-coverage-perl libsoap-lite-perl libsub-name-perl libtask-weaken-perl libterm-size-perl libtest-pod-perl libxml-namespacesupport-perl libxml-sax-expat-perl libxml-sax-perl libxml-simple-perl libyaml-syck-perl lintian lzma patchutils strace wdiff
su apt-get install ntfs-config mkdir -p /etc/hal/fdi/policy
Uncomplicated Firewall (UFW & GUFW) (Recommended) is a firewall that is designed to be easy to use. It uses a command line interface consisting of a small number of simple commands, and uses iptables. iptables is already a very powerful tool by itself, but it’s syntax can get awkward at times and hard to figure out, so Ubuntu developers decided to make ufw (“The reason ufw was developed is that we wanted to create a server-level firewall utility that was a little bit more for `human beings`.”), which was to be simpler. Now, on the graphical side of things, Firestarter already existed. But why not make an even easier to use GUI for desktop `human beings`, powered by ufw?
Open your Terminal, copy and paste:
su apt-get install gufw
GUFW is located in System >> Administration >> Firewall Configuration.
If you would like to simply use UFW from the command line, you can try any of these commands to make changes to your firewall.
To check your current settings:
ufw status verbose
To add suggested firewall rules:
ufw deny 5353/udp ufw deny 5900/tcp ufw deny 22 ufw deny 25/tcp ufw deny 135,139,445/tcp ufw deny 137,138/udp ufw deny 110 ufw deny 2049 ufw deny 143 ufw deny 21/tcp
Re-check your changes:
ufw status verbose
It will automatically load these settings from now on. If you need to access one of those ports temporarily, then you can open gufw and disable your firewall momentarily. Just don’t forget to re-enable it when you are done.
Here is a configuration script if you are running a server:
#!/bin/sh # obtain server's IP address SERVERIP=`hostname --all-ip-addresses | cut --fields 1 --delimiter " "` # disable firewall ufw disable # reset all firewall rules ufw reset # set default rules: deny all incoming traffic, allow all outgoing traffic ufw default deny incoming ufw default allow outgoing # open port for SSH ufw allow OpenSSH # open port for Webmin ufw allow webmin # open ports for Samba file sharing ufw allow from 10.0.0.0/8 to $SERVERIP app Samba ufw allow to 10.0.0.0/8 from $SERVERIP app Samba # open ports for Transmission-Daemon ufw allow 9091 ufw allow 20500:20599/tcp ufw allow 20500:20599/udp # open port for MySQL ufw allow proto tcp from 10.0.0.0/8 to any port 3306 # open ports for Lighttpd ufw allow “Lighttpd Full” # open port for network time protocol (ntpd) ufw allow ntp # enable firewall ufw enable # list all firewall rules ufw status verbose
For more information:
Internet Web Browsers:
How to update to the latest Ice Weasel Browser (from 3.* to 17+)
su apt-get install -t squeeze-backports iceweasel apt-get dist-upgrade apt-get autoremove
Here are some highly recommended add-ons for Ice Weasel:
Adblock Plus (plugin) (Highly Recommended)
Adblock Plus (ABP) is a content-filtering extension for Mozilla Ice Weasel and Google Chrome web browsers. ABP, a forked version of Adblock, allows users to prevent page elements, such as advertisements, from being downloaded and displayed. Very popular, and almost what I would consider to be a necessity, if you surf the Internet on a daily basis. Works great with sites like youtube.com and other similar web sites that bombard you with constant commercials. It will also allow you to import preconfigured blocklists to stop tracker web sites from monitoring your browser presence.
This extension allows you to export your saved passwords and disabled login hosts using XML or CSV files that can be imported later. Very helpful when needing to re-install Ubuntu onto a new system or migrating your data and personal information.
NetVideoHunter is a Ice Weasel add-on (extension), and you can easily download videos and audio from almost all audio and video streaming web pages with two clicks. Tested and considered to be probably the best plugin out of all the other similar plugins available for this kind of task.
HTTPS Everywhere is a Ice Weasel and Chrome extension that encrypts your communications with many major websites, making your browsing more secure.
Dictionaries & Language Packs (plugin) (Recommended)
Spell checking plugin for Mozilla Ice Weasel browser.
And for the rest of you diehard Firefox fans that still want Firefox instead of Ice Weasel (they are identical to each other in every way except branding) here is how you install the latest Firefox in Debian:
apt-get remove iceweasel echo -e "\ndeb http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/ubuntuzilla/mozilla/apt all main" | tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list > /dev/null apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com C1289A29 apt-get update apt-get install firefox-mozilla-build
Windows equivalent : windows media player, real player, vlc, mplayer, media codecs
Ubuntu equivalent : vlc, mplayer, fluendo media codecs
Unfortunately, many audio and video formats won’t work “out of the box” with Ubuntu, or most Linux distros.
Adobe Flash Player
su apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
If you are running a 32-bit version of Debian, copy and paste in Terminal:
su apt-get install libavcodec-extra-53 wget http://www.deb-multimedia.org/pool/non-free/w/w32codecs/w32codecs_20110131-0.1_i386.deb dpkg -i w32codecs_20110131-0.1_i386.deb wget http://www.deb-multimedia.org/pool/main/libd/libdvdcss/libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.3_i386.deb dpkg -i libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.3_i386.deb wget http://www.deb-multimedia.org/pool/main/g/gst-plugins-ugly/gstreamer0.10-lame_0.10.17-0.0_i386.deb dpkg -i gstreamer0.10-lame_0.10.17-0.0_i386.deb
If you are running a 64-bit version of Ubuntu, copy and paste in Terminal:
su apt-get install libavcodec-extra-53 wget http://www.deb-multimedia.org/pool/non-free/w/w64codecs/w64codecs_20071007-0.5_amd64.deb dpkg -i w64codecs_20071007-0.5_amd64.deb wget http://www.deb-multimedia.org/pool/main/libd/libdvdcss/libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.3_amd64.deb dpkg -i libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.3_amd64.deb wget http://www.deb-multimedia.org/pool/main/g/gst-plugins-ugly/gstreamer0.10-lame_0.10.17-0.0_amd64.deb dpkg -i gstreamer0.10-lame_0.10.17-0.0_amd64.deb
MPlayer is a movie player that plays most MPEG, VOB, AVI, OGG/OGM, VIVO, ASF/WMA/WMV, QT/MOV/MP4, FLI, RM, NuppelVideo, yuv4mpeg, FILM, RoQ, and PVA files. You can also use it to watch VCDs, SVCDs, DVDs, 3ivx, RealMedia, and DivX movies. It supports a wide range of output drivers including X11, XVideo, DGA, OpenGL, SVGAlib, fbdev, AAlib, DirectFB etc. There are also nice antialiased shaded subtitles and OSD.
VLC media player is a highly portable multimedia player and multimedia framework capable of reading most audio and video formats as well as DVDs, Audio CDs VCDs, and various streaming protocols. It can also be used as a media converter or a server to stream in uni-cast or multi-cast in IPv4 or IPv6 on networks.
Open your Terminal, copy and paste:
su apt-get install vlc mplayer mozilla-plugin-vlc guayadeque radiotray
SMPlayer intends to be a complete front-end for MPlayer, from basic features like playing videos, DVDs, and VCDs to more advanced features like support for MPlayer filters and more. One of the most interesting features of SMPlayer: it remembers the settings of all files you play. So you start to watch a movie but you have to leave. Don’t worry, when you open that movie again it will resume at the same point you left it, and with the same settings: audio track, subtitles, and volume. This is really great for watching DVD movies.
su apt-get install smplayer
FFMpeg is a complete and free Internet live audio and video broadcasting solution for Linux/Unix. It also includes a digital VCR. It can encode in real time in many formats including MPEG1 audio and video, MPEG4, h263, ac3, asf, avi, real, mjpeg, and flash.
Open your Terminal, copy and paste:
su apt-get install libxine1-ffmpeg gxine mencoder mpeg2dec vorbis-tools id3v2 mpg321 mpg123 libflac++6 ffmpeg libmp4v2-0 totem-mozilla icedax tagtool easytag id3tool lame libmad0 libjpeg-progs libquicktime1 flac faac faad sox ffmpeg2theora libmpeg2-4 uudeview flac libmpeg3-1 mpeg3-utils mpegdemux liba52-0.7.4-dev
Open your Terminal, copy and paste (when you get to the EULA prompt press Tab key):
su apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-fluendo-mp3 gstreamer0.10-gnonlin gstreamer0.10-sdl gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad totem-gstreamer gstreamer-tools
Additional True Type Fonts
When you begin the installation process you will come to a window that will require you to accept the EULA to install, and you will need to click on your <Tab> key to select <OK> and carefully press enter key and then carefully use <TAB> to select YES at the next prompt.
Open your Terminal, copy and paste:
apt-get install ttf-mscorefonts-installer
Extra Multimedia packages:
su apt-get install w32codecs libdvdcss2 gstreamer0.10-fluendo-mp3 ffmpeg sox twolame vorbis-tools lame faad gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad avifile-divx-plugin
su apt-get install w64codecs libdvdcss2 gstreamer0.10-fluendo-mp3 ffmpeg sox twolame vorbis-tools lame faad gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad avifile-divx-plugin
Copy and paste into your terminal:
su cd ~/ wget https://github.com/flexiondotorg/oab-java6/raw/0.2.6/oab-java.sh -O oab-java.sh chmod +x oab-java.sh ./oab-java.sh -7 apt-get install oracle-java7-jre oracle-java7-jdk oracle-java7-plugin oracle-java7-fonts
Windows equivalent : winrar, zip, 7zip
Ubuntu equivalent : tar, unrar, p7zip, arj, unace
An archive format is the file format of an archive file. The archive format is determined by the file archiver. Some archive formats are well-defined by their authors and have become conventions supported by multiple vendors and/or open-source communities.
sudo apt-get install unace rar unrar p7zip zip unzip p7zip-full p7zip-rar sharutils uudeview mpack lha arj cabextract file-roller
Alternative Graphical Web Browsers
Windows equivalent : Internet explorer, opera, google chrome
Ubuntu equivalent : Opera, Chromium, Google Chrome, Google Chrome Beta
Opera is a web browser and Internet suite developed by Opera Software. The browser handles common Internet-related tasks such as displaying web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, chatting on IRC, downloading files via BitTorrent, and reading web feeds.
su sh -c 'echo "deb http://deb.opera.com/opera/ stable non-free" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/opera.list' sh -c 'wget -O - http://deb.opera.com/archive.key | apt-key add -' apt-get update apt-get install opera
Google Chrome is a web browser developed by Google that uses the WebKit layout engine. It was first released as a beta version for Microsoft Windows on September 2, 2008, and the public stable release was on December 11, 2008. It uses its own flash plugin to play flash video/audio. The name is derived from the graphical user interface frame, or “chrome”, of web browsers. As of June 2011, Chrome was the third most widely used browser with 20.65% worldwide usage share of web browsers, according to StatCounter.
su wget -q -O - https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | apt-key add - sh -c 'echo "deb http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google.list' apt-get update apt-get install google-chrome-stable
or if you want the latest developmental version:
su apt-get install google-chrome-beta
Google Chrome Plugins:
Adblock Plus (plugin) (Recommended)
Adblock Plus (ABP) is a content-filtering extension for Google Chrome web browsers. ABP, a forked version of Adblock, allows users to prevent page elements, such as advertisements, from being downloaded and displayed. Very popular, and almost what I would consider to be a necessity, if you surf the Internet on a daily basis. Works great with sites like youtube.com and other similar web sites that bombard you with constant commercials. It will also allow you to import preconfigured blocklists to stop tracker web sites from monitoring your browser presence.
Access other computers or allow another user to access your computer securely over the Internet.
HTTPS Everywhere is a Firefox and Chrome extension that encrypts your communications with many major websites, making your browsing more secure.
Reditr is to Reddit what Tweetdeck is to Twitter. And now you can experience it under any GNU/Linux based system thanks to Google Chrome.
Google Talk is a browser plugin that lets you voice and video chat with friends and family from your browser. Install this plugin and logon to Gmail with your webcam and microphone attached to your computer, then initiate a chat with a friend or family member. It will try to connect to your webcam and enable video chat.
Special Note: After install Google Talk, if you see something like this:
W: Duplicate sources.list entry http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable/main Packages (/var/lib/apt/lists/dl.google.com_linux_chrome_deb_dists_stable_main_binary-amd64_Packages)
You will need to open Synaptic Package manager and find the duplicate repository entry and disable it manually. Also, I haven’t gotten around to testing this plugin to work with 12.04 yet.
su wget -q -O - https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | apt-key add - sh -c 'echo "deb http://dl.google.com/linux/talkplugin/deb/ stable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google.list' apt-get update apt-get install google-talkplugin
Instant Retro (Ubuntu alternative to Instagram) is a nice web app that lets you upload your digital photos and add vintage effects to your pictures in a snap. No smart phone needed! No need to sign up, just upload your digital photos from your computer and get started. It has a number of options that add different effects to the photo. Some of the effects are Roll, Burned, Lens, Rounded and Fuji. There are also options like the ability to adjust curves, lighten center, desaturate, etc which can adjusted using the horizontal sliders. If you are looking for something like Instagram on Ubuntu Linux then InstantRetro is for you.
Nautilus Utilities and terminal root:
There are times when you need to work with graphic files but with administrative rights (such as copying and pasting a wallpaper in /usr/share/backgrounds, for example), for this we use the extension nautilus-gksu. When you install this extension also installs the package gksu, Which is a graphical interface su and opens an entry in the gnome menu with a program called Terminal “Root”, which is useful when you want to perform administrative tasks from the console and install packages, install it by typing in a console:
Open a terminal and type (logged as root):
su apt-get install nautilus-gksu
Theme engines gtk+ 2.0 and core themes gnome:
When you install Debian Squeeze it comes with the Clearlooks theme and few alternative options, for more gtk themes you can install the following packages, typing in a terminal (logged as root):
su apt-get install gtk2-engines gtk2-engines-murrine murrine-themes gnome-themes-more
LibreOffice is a free software office suite developed by The Document Foundation as a fork of OpenOffice.org. It is compatible with other major office suites, including Microsoft Office, and available on a variety of platforms. Its developers’ goal is to produce a vendor-independent office suite with ODF support and without any copyright assignment requirements. The name is a hybrid word with the first part Libre, which means free (as in freedom) in French and Spanish, and the English word Office.
The first thing you need to do to install LibreOffice is remove the old outdated OpenOffice.org that you aren’t going to need anymore.
Remove all instances of OpenOffice.org:
su apt-get autoremove openoffice.org-*
su wget http://download.documentfoundation.org/libreoffice/stable/3.6.3/deb/x86/LibO_3.6.3_Linux_x86_install-deb_en-US.tar.gz wget http://download.documentfoundation.org/libreoffice/stable/3.6.3/deb/x86/LibO_3.6.3_Linux_x86_langpack-deb_es.tar.gz tar xzvf LibO_3.6.3_Linux_x86_install-deb_en-US.tar.gz tar xzvf LibO_3.6.3_Linux_x86_langpack-deb_es.tar.gz cd LibO_184.108.40.206_Linux_x86_install-deb_en-US/DEBS/ dpkg -i *.deb cd desktop-integration dpkg -i *.deb cd ../../../LibO_220.127.116.11_Linux_x86_langpack-deb_es/DEBS/ dpkg -i *.deb
su wget http://download.documentfoundation.org/libreoffice/stable/3.6.3/deb/x86_64/LibO_3.6.3_Linux_x86-64_install-deb_en-US.tar.gz wget http://download.documentfoundation.org/libreoffice/stable/3.6.3/deb/x86_64/LibO_3.6.3_Linux_x86-64_langpack-deb_es.tar.gz tar xzvf LibO_3.6.3_Linux_x86-64_install-deb_en-US.tar.gz tar xzvf LibO_3.6.3_Linux_x86-64_langpack-deb_es.tar.gz cd LibO_18.104.22.168_Linux_x86-64_install-deb_en-US/DEBS/ dpkg -i *.deb cd desktop-integration dpkg -i *.deb cd ../../../LibO_22.214.171.124_Linux_x86-64_langpack-deb_es/DEBS/ dpkg -i *.deb
How to install Grammar checking Plug-in for LibreOffice Writer(:
Viewing PDF files (Recommended)
Windows equivalent : Adobe Reader
Ubuntu equivalent : Adobe Reader
Adobe Reader enables users to view and print PDF files but doesn’t have PDF creation capabilities. Acrobat and Reader are widely used as a way to present information with a fixed layout similar to a paper publication (when you get to the EULA prompt press Tab key) and make sure to install medibuntu repository at the beginning of this guide at the top:
su apt-get install acroread
Graphical FTP clients
Windows equivalent : CuteFTP, SmartFTP, CoreFTP
Ubuntu equivalent : FileZilla
FileZilla is free, open source, cross-platform FTP/SFTP software, consisting of FileZilla Client and FileZilla Server. Binaries are available for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. It supports FTP, SFTP, and FTPS (FTP over SSL/TLS). As of 18 April 2011, FileZilla Client was the 7th most popular download of all time from SourceForge.net.
To install FileZilla in terminal:
su apt-get install filezilla filezilla-common
Access it through Applications → Internet → FileZilla FTP Client.
Essentially is it like notepad in MS Windows but with many many more features.
su apt-get install gedit gedit-plugins
su apt-get install geany geany-plugins
KompoZer is an open source WYSIWYG HTML editor based on a rewritten version of the now-discontinued Nvu editor. KompoZer is maintained as a community-driven fork and is a project on Sourceforge.
su apt-get install kompozer
Access it through Applications → Programming → Kompozer
Windows equivalent : Adobe Photoshop
Debian equivalent : GIMP
GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free software raster graphics editor. It is primarily employed as an image retouching and editing tool and is freely available in versions tailored for most popular operating systems including Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, and GNU/Linux. It has layering abilities like Photoshop.
In addition to detailed image retouching and free-form drawing, GIMP can accomplish essential image editing tasks such as resizing, editing, and cropping photos, photomontages combining multiple images, and converting between different image formats. GIMP can also be used to create basic animated images in the GIF format.
New additions in Gimp 2.8 are single window mode, on-canvas text editing, layers group, and to apply all changes to a layer grouping.
GIMP’s product vision is that GIMP is, or will become, a free software high-end graphics application for the editing and creation of original images, icons, graphical elements of web pages and art for user interface elements.
su apt-get install gimp gimp-data gimp-data-extras
Access it through Applications → Graphics → GIMP Image Editor.
Special Note: If you want the latest version of Gimp, I have attempted to figure out a way to install the latest GIMP 2.8 in Debian Squeeze and I couldn’t find instructions that would work to allow me to successfully build it from scratch. I was able to install Gimp 2.7, but it had problems too after testing it out. There really isn’t a way to get 2.8 on here without a huge hassle – AFAIK.
Download additional Script-Fu filters and tweaks:
Instructions on how to install Scripts that work in Gimp:
To install additional helpful plugins for Gimp try:
Windows equivalent: Aftershot Pro, Lightroom, Bridge, Photoshop Organizer
RAW file viewers/editors/plugins for SLR Digital Photography
Not the most intuitive program to use at first, Raw Therapee is a fairly feature rich and comprehensive RAW editor that’s compatible with Linux. At the time of writing, the team are working on a stable release of version 3.0, which is a major release for the project. Unidentified Flying RAW (or UFRaw for short) is a dedicated RAW image editor based on GTK+. It can be used as an application on its own or as a plugin for GIMP (simply open a RAW image in GIMP to be presented with the UFRaw editor window).
apt-get install libraw-bin ufraw ufraw-batch and gimp-ufraw rawtherapee
For more raw file utilities visit: http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/4-great-tools-editing-raw-photos-linux/
Darktable is an open source photography workflow application and RAW developer. A virtual lighttable and darkroom for photographers. It manages your digital negatives in a database, lets you view them through a zoomable lighttable and enables you to develop raw images and enhance them. It focuses on the workflow to make it easier for the photographer to quickly handle the thousands of images a day of shooting can produce. It’s also one of the very few FOSS projects able to do tethered shooting.
apt-get install darktable
Shotwell can import photos and videos from a digital camera directly. Shotwell automatically groups photos and videos by date, and supports tagging. Its image editing features allow users to rotate, crop, eliminate red eye, and adjust levels and color balance. It also features an auto “enhance” option that will attempt to guess appropriate levels for the image. Shotwell allows users to publish their images and videos to Facebook, Flickr, Picasa Web Albums, Piwigo, and YouTube.
apt-get install shotwell
Audacity is a cross-platform multitrack audio editor. It allows you to record sounds directly or to import files in various formats and convert audio files into many different audio file formats too. It features a few simple effects, all of the editing features you should need, and unlimited undo. This is the first and last GUI audio editor you will ever need on Ubuntu.
apt-get install audacity lame libmp3lame0
gtkpod is a graphical user interface for the Apple iPod for Unix-like systems, written using the GTK+ toolkit.
Windows equivalent : iTunes
This application allow you to connect to your ipod, shuffle, idohickeythingamabob so you can access your music, mp4s, and tranfer them, copy them, rename them, with Ubuntu or Debian systems. It’s all kinds of good stuff for apple media users.
apt-get install gtkpod
Spotify is a Swedish-founded, UK-headquartered DRM-based music streaming service offering streaming of selected music from a range of major and independent record labels, including Sony, EMI, Warner Music Group, and Universal.
Launched in October 2008 by Swedish startup Spotify AB, the service had approximately ten million users as of 15 September 2010; about 2.5 million of whom were paying members.The service is, as of November 2011, available in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.
su apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 94558F59 sh -c 'echo "deb http://repository.spotify.com stable non-free" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/spotify.list' apt-get update apt-get install spotify-client-qt
Special Note: It is possible to crash Spotify in Squeeze if you push it hard enough, however I was happy with its performance anyhow.
Map Viewing and Management
Google Earth allows you to travel the world through a virtual globe and view satellite imagery, maps, terrain, 3D buildings, and much more. With Google Earth’s rich, geographical content, you are able to experience a more realistic view of the world.
Software Prerequisite: Make sure you have all your media codecs installed listed at the beginning of this tutorial.
And if you are running a 64-bit version of Debian:
apt-get install ia32-libs
Prerequisite (both 32-bit and 64-bit):
apt-get install lsb-core
Select either: 32 bit .deb (For Debian/Ubuntu) or 64 bit .deb (For Debian/Ubuntu)
And install it with Gdebi like this:
If you would like to get notified when you have a new mail in your google mail account, checkgmail is for you.
apt-get install checkgmail
Now you can launch it from Application → Internet → CheckGmail
Windows equivalent : Skype
Ubuntu equivalent : Skype, Jitsi, Brosix
Skype is a software application that allows users to make voice and video calls and chats over the Internet. Calls to other users within the Skype service are free, while calls to both traditional landline telephones and mobile phones can be made for a fee using a debit-based user account system. Skype has also become popular for its additional features which include instant messaging, file transfer, and video conferencing.
Hardware acceleration and WebGL also feature in this release but are not turned on by default. Head into opera:config to enable it.
Other new features include:
- Webcam support
- Support for the Do Not Track header
- CSS3 Animations and Transitions
- Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (Cors) Support
- Improved language support
Some webcams work perfect with Cheese and other webcam applications, but in Skype you may have a green screen, no picture at all or the picture is upside down!
If you have webcam issues with skype, fix this by doing this:
echo -e '#!/bin/bash n LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libv4l/v4l1compat.so /usr/bin/skype' | tee /usr/local/bin/skype chmod a+x /usr/local/bin/skype
If that doesn’t fix it trying downgrading your Ubuntu OS from 64-bit to 32-bit during the installation and then reinstall it. Yes, that means reinstalling your entire system from the beginning.
Hard Disk Partition Manager
Windows equivalent : Norton Partition Magic
Ubuntu equivalent : GParted
GParted is a GTK+ front-end to GNU Parted and the official GNOME Partition Editor application.
It is used for creating, deleting, resizing, moving, checking and copying partitions, and the file systems on them. This is useful for creating space for new operating systems (works with Vista / Windows 7 System & Data partitions), reorganizing disk usage, copying data residing on hard disks and mirroring one partition with another (disk imaging). It is useful for tasks such as: creating space for new operating systems, restructuring disk space to separate user and operating system data, and copying partitions to enable upgrading to a larger hard disk drive. Your hard disk drive or USB flash drive can be subdivided into one or more partitions. GParted enables you to reorganize your disk partitions while preserving the contents of these partitions.
apt-get install gparted
Calibre is a free and open source e-book computer software that organizes, saves and manages e-books, supporting a variety of formats. It also supports e-book syncing with a variety of popular e-book readers. calibre is cross-platform (programmed in Python and C) and is intended for the three main operating systems, Linux, Mac OS X and Windows.
Windows: “Kindle for PC” software
Calibre was originally called libprs500, but was renamed calibre (lower case ‘C’) in mid-2008. calibre is primarily an e-book cataloging program. It is designed around the concept of the logical book, where a single database entry corresponds with the same book in a variety of formats. calibre supports the following formats for cataloging: AZW, AZW1, CBR, CBZ, CHM, EPUB, FB2, HTML, IMP, LIT, LRF, LRX, MOBI, ODT, OEBZIP, OPF, PDB, PDF, PML, PMLZ, PRC, RAR, RB, RTF, SNB, TPZ, TXT and ZIP.
apt-get install calibre
Also make sure to install better smaller fonts:
Compiz (very optional)
Compiz is a compositing window manager for the X Window System, using 3D graphics hardware to create fast compositing desktop effects for window management. Effects, such as a minimization animation or a cube workspace, are implemented as loadable plugins. Because it conforms to the ICCCM standard, Compiz can be used as a substitute for the default Mutter or Metacity, when using GNOME Panel, or KWin in KDE Plasma Workspaces.
Copy and paste the following command into Terminal:
apt-get install compiz compizconfig-settings-manager compiz-plugins
P2P Clients & Servers, File Sharing
Windows equivalent : Limewire, utorrent, Azureus, Emule, PeerGuardian
Ubuntu equivalent : Frostwire, Deluge, Azureus, Amule, Moblock/Mobloquer
BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing protocol used for distributing large amounts of data over the Internet. BitTorrent is one of the most common protocols for transferring large files, and it has been estimated that it accounted for roughly 43% to 70% of all Internet traffic (depending on geographical location) as of February 2009.
Windows equivalent: Limewire
FrostWire is a free, open source BitTorrent client, first released in September, 2004, as a fork of LimeWire. It was initially very similar to LimeWire in appearance and functionality, but developers added more features, such as BitTorrent support. In version Five, Gnutella support was dropped entirely, and now FrostWire only uses the BitTorrent network. Development of the program has been active since the program was first released in September 2004.
Bittorrent Add-ons for Ubuntu:
Windows Equivalent: PeerGuardian (highly recommended for Bittorent users)
Ubuntu equivalent : PGL and PGLGUI
PeerGuardian Linux (pgl) is a privacy oriented firewall application. It blocks connections to and from hosts specified in huge blocklists (thousands or millions of IP ranges). Its origins lie in targeting aggressive IPs while you use P2P.
While you are installing PGL just accept the default settings for now. You can change them with PGLGUI after you are done installing everything.
To install PGL and PGLGUI in terminal (select the default settings by using the TAB key and pressing enter – there will be several prompts – just accept default settings and afterwards you can configure the blocklists):
Add these to your source.list:
deb http://moblock-deb.sourceforge.net/debian squeeze main deb-src http://moblock-deb.sourceforge.net/debian squeeze main
Update your system.
And then copy and paste in Terminal:
gpg --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys C0145138 gpg --export --armor C0145138 | sudo apt-key add - sudo apt-get install pgld pglcmd pglgui
Make sure to enable your blocklists you want and update PGLGUI after you get it completely installed:
The first thing most users will notice after installing PGL and have it running is that their Pidgin/Empathy/IMclientOfChoice/WebBrowser stops working. PGLGUI log will list the IP’s and info about the IP’s, so just whitelist them if need be with one mouse click.
It is really a very strong utility and will block pretty much everything until you tell it to do otherwise. But you only need to run this when you are seeding or downloading torrent files.
Deluge Client is a full-featured BitTorrent client for Linux, OS X, Unix and Windows. It uses libtorrent in it’s backend and features multiple user-interfaces including: GTK+, web and console. It has been designed using the client server model with a daemon process that handles all the bittorrent activity.
apt-get install deluge-torrent
Access it through Applications → Internet → Deluge Torrent.
Vuze (formerly Azureus) is a P2P file sharing client using the bittorrent protocol. Search and download torrent files. Play, convert and transcode videos and music for playing on many devices such as PSP, TiVo, XBox, PS3, iTunes (iPhone, iPod, Apple TV).
apt-get install azureus
Access it through Applications → Internet → Azureus.
µTorrent Server is a very tiny BitTorrent server, super fast and ultra light. µTorrent’s built for speed. That means ultra-efficient downloads of mega-sized files. Untested in Ubuntu 10.04 LTS.
Go to µTorrent official site and download the Ubuntu installation package and use the following instructions to install µTorrent at:
They aren’t quite Ubuntu friendly, but they will help you get that on there.
BleachBit (recommended) quickly frees disk space and tirelessly guards your privacy. Free cache, delete cookies, clear Internet history, shred temporary files, delete logs, and discard junk you didn’t know was there. Designed for Linux and Windows systems, it wipes clean 90 applications including Firefox, Internet Explorer, Adobe Flash, Google Chrome, Opera, Safari, and more. I highly recommend installing this on your system at some point, and making sure to have it automatically run at system login as a reminder. Even though Ubuntu doesn’t have issues with Viruses and Spyware, however your system can become slowly bogged down with tmp cache files in Mozilla Firefox and Chrome with heavy use, so it makes sense to run bleachbit periodically to speed up your system.
Windows equivalent : CCleaner
Beyond simply deleting files, BleachBit includes advanced features such as shredding files to prevent recovery, wiping free disk space to hide traces of files deleted by other applications, and vacuuming Firefox to make it faster. Better than free, BleachBit is open source. If you have a system that seems to be running slower than normal, it’s always a good idea to try running Bleachbit to see if it may resolve your performance issues that you may be experiencing. I personally recommend that heavy internet users run this at least once or twice a month.
apt-get install bleachbit bleachbit